1860 Map of the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia

1860 Map of the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia

This map shows the geographical reality of the Mapuche nation at the time of the foundation of the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (KAP).

The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia was founded on November 17, 1860 by the highest Mapuche authorities and Orélie Antoine de Tounens, a French citizen (naturalized Mapuche).

In that historical period, the Mapuche and other indigenous peoples maintained a heroic resistance against a systematic military onslaught by the newly formed states of Argentina and Chile, who conspired to expand their territory through the use of force.

An imbalance of weaponry, caused by the introduction of modern armaments by both states, led the Mapuche people to explore ways for a peaceful solution to the conflict through negotiation.

The Mapuche were well versed in the skills and art of diplomacy, which was perceived as a means to avoid the use of force. It was then decided to adopt a system of government according to international standards in order to gain international recognition of their independence, which undoubtedly was essential to continue to maintain their territorial integrity, independence and freedom. 

Prior to the adoption of the Constitution, which gave rise to monarchy government and proclaimed Orélie-Antoine de Tounens as their Sovereign, the Mapuche nation's independence had been recognized by the Spanish Crown in the Treaty of Quillin on 6 January 1641. The treaty delimited the border between the two nations, and was later ratified in some thirty bilateral treaties. This allowed both the treaty and the border to remain in force during the entire Spanish colonial period in the South American continent.

The nascent states of Argentina and Chile initially also recognized the border established with Spain. The conclusion of treaties by both states with the Mapuche nation and the fortification of the border is a clear substantiation of the attitude taken regarding the existing geographical reality then in place.

In 1860, the territory of the Mapuche nation and other indigenous peoples extended from the Bio-Bio river in Gulumapu (Chile) and the Colorado and Salado rivers in Puelmapu (Argentina) to the southernmost tip of the continent of South America. The sovereign Mapuche nation’s territory included all adjacent islands located in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, including the Falkland Islands.


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